Research Publications

Corundum – Ruby & Sapphire

  1. Tay Thye Sun, “Structural Aspects of Fingerprint Inclusions in Corundum”, The Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 5, February 1987, pg.188-190.
  2. S.M.Tang, S.H.Tang, T.S.Tay, and A.T.Retty, “Analysis of Burmese and Thai Rubies by PIXE”, Applied Spectroscopy, Vol.42, Number 1, 1988, pg.44-48. [click here to download]
  3. S.M.Tang, S.H.Tang, K.F.Mok, A.T.Retty and T.S.Tay, “A Study of Natural and Synthetic Rubies by PIXE”, Applied Spectroscopy, Vol.43, Number 2, 1989, pg.219-223. [click here to download]
  4. Tay Thye Sun, “Synthetic found mixed with rough ruby”, Jewellery News Asia, September 1991, pg.172.
  5. Tay Thye Sun, “Red Diffusion-treated corundum – Availability Increases in Asia”, Jewellery News Asia, September 1995, pg.134-135.
  6. T.Osipowicz, T.S.Tay, I.Orlic, S.M.Tang, F.Watt, “Nuclear Microscopy of Rubies: Trace Elements and Inclusions”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 104, 1995, pg.590-594.
  7. Tay Thye Sun, “New Type of Diffused Red Corundum”, Jewellery News Asia, September 1996, pg.142-144.
  8. J.L.Sanchez, T.Osipowicz, S.M.Tang, T.S.Tay, T.T.Win, “Micro-PIXE analysis of Trace Element Concentrations of Natural Rubies From Different Locations of Myanmar”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 130, 1997, pg.682-686.
  9. Tay Thye Sun, “A Journey Through Ruby Country”, The Singaporean Gemologist, June 1998, pg.38-48.
  10. Tay Thye Sun & Daw Swae Swae Aye, “A Journey Through Ruby Country” November-December 1998, pg.8-17.
  11. Tay Thye Sun & Zeng Chun Guang, “Examining Flame Fusion Synthetic Ruby with Fingerprint Inclusions”, Jewellery News Asia, September 1999, pg.104-106.
  12. T.S.Tay, U.Tin Hlaing, Wilawan Atichat, Win Win Thar, S.M.Tang, “A Preliminary Study of Sapphire from Myanmar”, XXVII International Gemmological Conference, Madrid, Spain, October 2001, pg.90-94.


  1. Tay Thye Sun, “Laboratory Finds Jadeite Doublets”, Jewellery News Asia, October 1992, pg.100.
  2. Tay Thye Sun, “The Bleached Jade Controversy”, JewelSiam, Nov-Dec 1992, pg.98-100.
  3. Tay Thye Sun, “Where was jadeite bleached? – Pieces Sold Close To Myanmar Border”, Jewellery News Asia, April 1993, pg.126.
  4. Tay Thye Sun, “The Gem Trade Must Adopt International Disclosure Rules”, JewelSiam, Oct-Nov 1993, pg.20-21.
  5. T.S.Tay, S.Paul, C.M.Puah, “SEM Studies of Bleached and Polymer- impregnated Jadeite”, The Australian Gemmologist, Vol.18, No.8, November 1993, pg.257-261. [click here to download]
  6. T.L.Tan, T.S.Tay, F.C.Loh, K.L.Tan and S.M.Tang, “Identification of bleached wax – and polymer-impregnated jadeite by X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy“, The Journal of Gemmology, July 1995, Vol.24, No.7, pg.475-483.
  7. T.S.Tay, S.P.Liew and C.M.Puah “Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) Studies of inclusions in Jadeite”, Journal of the Gemmological Association of Hong Kong, Vol. XVlll, 1995, pg.8-10.
  8. Tay Thye Sun, “Repaired Crack Hard to Detect”, Jewellery News Asia, March 1996, pg.66.
  9. T.S.Tay, S.P.Liew, C.M.Puah, “Scanning Electron Microscope Studies on Bleaching of Jadeite”, The Australian Gemologist, Vol.19, No.7, 1996, pg.310-314
  10. Richard W. Hughes, Olivier Galibert, George Bosshart, Fred Ward, Thet Oo, Mark Smith, Tay Thye Sun and George Harlow, “Burmese Jade: The Inscrutable Gem”, Gems & Gemology (USA), Spring 2000, Volume 36 No. 1, pg.2-26.
  11. Tay Thye Sun, “Disclosure – Gemstones & Synthetics – Does the Jewellery Industry Care?”, The Australian Gemmologist, Vol.21, No.2, April-June, 2001, pg.67-75. Presentation was at Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Melbourne 28-29th August, 2000.
  12. T.L.Tan, T.S.Tay, B.L.Tan and W.H.Tan, “Identification of an impregnated quartz imitation of jade”, Journal of Gemmology, 2003, 28, 7, pg.392-398.
  13. Tay Thye Sun, “Jade and its treatment” based on a presentation at GemmoBasel 2005, in honor of the 60th birthday of Prof. Dr Henry Hanni. The Canadian Gemmologist, Winter 2005, Vol. 26, No. 4, pg.120-128.
  14. Tay Thye Sun, “Changing Face of Jade”, SSEF Alumni Newsletter, January 2006, No. 3, pg.5-6.
  15. Panjawan Thanasuthipitak, Tay Thye Sun, Wilawan Atichat, Henry A. Hanni and Theerapongs Thanasuthipitak “Preliminary Studies to Distinguish Omphacite from Jadeite”, IGC 2011 Abstract Proceedings, pg.118-120.


  1. Tay Thye Sun, “Laboratory Alert – No. 82, Synthetic Emerald: Wolf In Sheep’s Clothing”, International Colored Gemstone Association, March 1995
  2. K.N.Yu, S.M.Tang and T.S.Tay, “Nuclear Microscopic Studies of Inclusions in Natural and Synthetic Emeralds”, X-ray Spectrometry, 2000, 29, pg.178-186.
  3. K.N.Yu, S.M.Tang and T.S.Tay, “PIXE studies of emeralds”, X-ray Spectrometry, 2000, 29, pg.267-278.
  4. Tay Thye Sun, Wilawan Atichat, Boontawee Sriprasert, Thanong Leelawatanasuk, Chaniya Somboon, Nalin Narudeesombat, “Yellow Beryl From Indochina”, 31st International Gemmological Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, 8-14 Oct 2009, pg.62-66.


  1. S.M.Tang, T.S.Tay, “Radioactivity of Neutron-irradiated Cat’s-eye Chrysoberyl”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 150, 1999, pg.491-495.


  1. Tay Thye Sun, “A Preliminary Finding in Kalimantan Diamond”, Journal of Gems and Gemmology, December 2004, Vol. 6, No. 4, pg.12-13.
  2. T.S Tay, Pornsawat Wathanakul, Wilawan Atichat, Lim Heng Moh, Lee Kien Kem and Ruby Hermanto, “Kalimantan Diamond – morphology, surface features, and some spectroscopic approaches”, The Australian Gemmologist, First Quater 2005, Vol. 22, No. 5, pg.186 – 195. [click here to download]


  1. T.L.Tan, T.S.Tay, S.K.Khairoman, and Y.C.Low “Identification of an imitation of pearl by FTIR, EDXRF and SEM”, The Journal of Gemmology, January/April 2005, Vol. 29, No. 5/6, pg.316-324.
  2. Tay Thye Sun, Grahame Brown, and Li Liping, “Fresh Water Cultured Pearl from China”, Presented at the 1st International Pearl Conference, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 18-22 Nov 2007.


  1. T.S.Tay, Z.X.Shen, S.I.Yee, “On The Identification Of Amber And Its Imitations Using Raman Spectroscopy – Preliminary Results”, The Australian Gemmologist, Vol.20, No.3, 1998, pg.114-123

Ornamental Stone and general topics

  1. Tay Thye Sun, “Judge orders refund in sale of treated beryls”, ICA Gazette, June 1995, pg.7.
  2. Tay Thye Sun, “Notes From A Singaporean Laboratory”, The Australian Gemmologist, Vol.19, No.4, 1995, pg.178-181.
  3. Tay Thye Sun, “Meeting the ISO/IEC Guide 25”, The Singaporean Gemologist, Vol. 5, No.1, June 1998, pg. 63.
  4. Tay Thye Sun, Henry A. Hanni & Julius Partzsch, “Ornamental Stone of Phillipines“, XXVI International Gemmological Conference, Goa, India, October 1999, pg.40.
  5. Tay Thye Sun, “Development of Gems & Jewellery Testing and Trade in Singapore” Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Report of APEC Gems and Jewelry Trade and Technology Seminar, 15-19 May 2000, Beijing, China.
  6. Tay Thye Sun, “Beware … Colour Fading Black Diamond”, The Valuer, National Council of Jewellery Valuers (Australia), Vol. 20, No. 1, January-March 2002, pg.14.
  7. Tay Thye Sun, “An Interesting Challenge Appraising a Twin Dragon Boat”, The Valuer, The National Council of Jewellery Valuers (Australia), Vol. 20, No. 3, July-September 2002, pg.6-7.
  8. Tay Thye Sun, “The Challenge of Assessing Claimed Damage to a Diamond Ring”, The Valuer, The National Council of Jewellery Valuers (Australia), Vol. 21, No. 2, April-June 2003, pg.16-17.
  9. Tay Thye Sun, “Appraisal of a large rough sapphire crystal”, The Valuer, National Council of Jewellery Valuers, Vol. 23, No. 3, July-September 2005, pg.14-15.
  10. Tay Thye Sun, “From the laboratory”, The Australian Gemmologist, January-March, 2006, Vol. 22, No. 9, pg.406-407.
  11. Tay Thye Sun, “Beware … Colour-enhanced Jade”, The Valuer, National Council of Jewellery Valuers, Vol. 24, No. 4, October-December 2006, pg.10.
  12. Tay Thye Sun, “Some Notes from a Singapore Gem Laboratory”, 1st International Gem and Jewelry Conference, 6-9 December 2006, Bangkok and Chanthaburi Thailand, pg.58.
  13. Tay Thye Sun, “From the laboratory”, The Australian Gemmologist, January-March 2007, Vol. 23, No. 1, pg.16-21.
  14. Tay Thye Sun, “Moldavite: Natural or imitation?”, The Australian Gemmologist, April-June, 2007, Vol. 23, No. 2, pg.76-78.
  15. Tay Thye Sun, Puah Chun Mok, Sunny Liew Paul, Mahardi Paramita, Charles E.S. Arps, Wilawan Atichat, We Weng Kang, Kumala Wijaya, “Precious Opal from Java – Gemmological Properties, Micro- and Nano-structures”, 30th International Gemmological Conference, Moscow, Russia, 2007, abstract pg.117-118.

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